Passive buildings are ones with the highest thermal comfort and extremely low thermal energy requirement (not exceeding 15 kWh/m2/year). The idea of passive housing is heating the interior with thermal energy created “passively”, i.e. from collected solar rays and the warmth generated by people and household equipment.
The primary required parameters for passive housing are:
- a heat transfer coefficient (U value) for the entire building below 0,15 W/(m2/K)
- a heat transfer coefficient (U value) for windows below 0,8 W/(m2/K)
- use of mechanical ventilation with heat recuperation
- minimizing of thermal bridges
- maintenance of a simple and compact building body
- incorporation of large glass panels on the south side
- situation on an unshaded plot of land
Construction of a passive house is associated with certain sacrifices and an increase in construction costs by approximately 35% compared to standard housing.